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Physics Major Guide for 2009-2010

What is Physics

Physics is the branch of science that describes matter, energy, space, and time at the most fundamental level—so naturally physics forms the basis for the study of astronomy (and maybe every other natural science!). The physicist’s goal is to know the world as deeply as he or she can.

Everything in nature, from the smallest subatomic entities (have you heard about string theory?) to our universe itself, obeys the laws of physics. Understanding these laws allows us to predict the behavior of everything from rockets to lasers to computer microchips. In fact, there are principles of physics that relate to virtually any field you can name.
Artists and writers may do the best job of describing physical phenomena qualitatively, but the physicist chases the ultimate goal of creating a quantitative description that accounts for all physical phenomena using mathematics as the language of choice.

Pursuing that goal in the study of physics gives you a chance to develop an analytical, scientific approach to learning. You will acquire the skills of thinking logically, analyzing clearly, making reasonable assumptions and approximations, and solving problems. In effect, you will train your mind to be an instrument that will serve you well in anything you choose to do.
The course offerings of the Department of Physics and Astronomy reflect our awareness that students want a number of different results from our classes. We offer courses for non-physicists, as well as courses that lead to both Arts and Sciences and Engineering Physics degrees. Whether you plan a career in physics or seek to apply your interest in physics to another field, we have a program for you.

Career Opportunities in Physics

What can you do with a bachelor’s degree in Physics?

Physics bachelor's graduates have a number of career options.  Many choose to continue their education by pursuing a graduate degree in physics or a related field.  Of those who opt for a full-time position right out of graduation, nearly 60% go into the private sector, with nearly two-thirds working in fields associated with science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM).  Physics graduates also find their skills welcome in fields like K-12 education, finance, and journalism. 

Salary Trends in Physics

The average starting salary for a physicist working in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) areas was $45,000 for bachelor's graduates in  2005 and 2006, according to the American Institute of Physics. 

The U.S. Census Bureau reports that the median 2002 salary for physics bachelor's graduates in the 35 to 44 age bracket was $78,000. The higher the degree, the greater the financial rewards, with master’s degree recipients in this age group earning $87,000 and Ph.D.’s earning $95,000.  Industrial salaries tend to be higher; academic salaries lower.

High School Preparation

If your high school offers physics, take it, along with whatever math and science courses you can work into your schedule. Math is especially important—maybe even more than physics—because as we mentioned earlier, mathematics is the language of physics. The more comfortable you are with mathematics, the easier it will be to learn physics.

Don’t worry if you couldn’t or didn’t take physics in high school. That does not rule out physics as a major if you are interested in the field. Some of our best students never took a course in physics until college.

How to Major in Physics

Take the prerequisites for a physics major (listed below) in your first year. By your second year, you’ll be clearer on how you plan to use physics in your career and you’ll be ready to pick the concentration that best suits your needs.

  • The academic concentration is intended for students interested in professional employment or graduate work in physics.
  • The applied concentration introduces students to the physics and technology of today and tomorrow. Such a background is increasingly useful in technological and industrial fields outside physics.
  • The general concentration is intended for students who plan to apply a substantial knowledge of physics to such fields as secondary education, medicine, law, journalism, business, or any other field.
  • The astronomy concentration is for students who may wish to do graduate work in astronomy or astrophysics. 

Minors in physics and in astronomy are also available.

Requirements for Physics


Physics 137-138 or 135-146, Mathematics 141-142, and Computer Science 102 are prerequisites to the major.  Engineering Fundamentals 151-152 and Physics 231-232, together, can replace Physics 137-138 or 135-136.  Students may declare a physics major before completing these prerequisites.  

The Physics Major

The physics major consist of 38 hours.  Physics 250, 311, 321, 361, 411, 421, 431, 461 (26 hours) are required.  

In addition, 12 hours chosen from 300 and 400 level physics courses, or from 200-400 astronomy courses, are required.  

Students who wish to apply physics to other career goals, such as chemistry, mathematics, education, law, medicine or journalism should consult with the department curriculum chair about appropriate alternative courses. 

Students planning graduate work in physics are advised to take Physics 312, 412, and 432.  Physics 401 and Math 403, Math 435, and Math 443 are recommended.  Students completing Physics 312, 401, 412, and 432 will have the Academic Concentration designation added to their transcripts.

Students planning work in applied fields related to physics are advised to take Physics 401, 453, and 454 among the additional 12 hours.  Students completing these courses will have the Applied Concentration designation to their transcripts. 

Students planning graduate work in astronomy should take Astronomy 217, 218, 411, 490.  Students completing these courses will have the Astronomy Concentration designation added to their transcripts. 

Special Programs, Co-ops, and Internships

UT's physics majors enjoy excellent opportunities to work in research with faculty members on campus, at nearby Oak Ridge National Laboratory, or in national research experience for undergraduate programs. Our majors have worked with NASA, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, and the KamLAND project in Japan. The Science Alliance, a UT-ORNL Center of Excellence, sponsors a summer research program for outstanding upper-level physics majors, pairing them with UT faculty members to work on projects ranging from hydrogen storage to growing superconducting crystals. Well-prepared high-school seniors are encouraged to compete for departmental scholarships, which provide financial support for freshmen and sophomores and departmental employment for juniors and seniors. Undergraduates can also work in the Physics Tutorial Center and help with equipment setup in the instructional labs.

Highlights of Physics

Physics majors at UT enjoy the advantages of a large university with the individual attention and camaraderie of small classes. Courses for physics majors typically have only 10 to 15 students and are taught by dedicated faculty members, not teaching assistants. Undergraduate majors have their own computer-equipped lounge and lead the department's chapter of the Society of Physics Students, an active group famous for their liquid nitrogen ice cream sales and physics demonstrations during Homecoming weekend.

Ready for the World logoReady for the World

quot;Ready for the World” is part of a long-range plan to transform the UTK campus into a culture of diversity that best prepares students for working and competing in the 21st century.  Thus students are encouraged to actively participate in the diverse cultural programs offered on campus.  Some of these events include the guest lecture series, cultural nights at the International House, and international film screenings.  Visit the Center for International Education web site ( or the Ready for the World web site ( for more information on upcoming cultural programs and activities.

Students are also encouraged to develop a global perspective within their academic program through study abroad.  The physics department, for example, sponsors an exchange program with the University of Oslo in Norway.  Visit the Programs Abroad Office web site ( for information on study abroad opportunities

Learn more about UT's Ready for the World initiative to help students gain the international and intercultural knowledge they need to succeed in today's world.

Sample Curriculum

Freshman Year Credit Hours
English Composition 6
Foreign Language 6
Physics 135-136 or Physics 137-138 8-10
Math 141, 142 8
Computer Science 102 4

Sophomore Year Credit Hours
Foreign Language or General Electives 6
Physics 250, 311, 321, 361
Non-US History Sequence 6
Math 231, 241 7

Junior Year Credit Hours
Physics 421, 431 7
Communicating Through Writing 3
Humanities 6
Upper Level Distribution 3
Social Science 6
Mathematics 435
Upper Division Elective 3

Senior Year Credit Hours
Physics 411, 461 6
General Electives 3-5
Communicating Orally 3
Upper Level Distribution 3
Physics (major upper-division)
Physics (major 200 level or above)

GRAND TOTAL (minimum) 120

For More Information

Dr. Soren Sorensen, Head
401 Nielsen Physics Building
(865) 974-3342



The information on this page should be considered general information only. For more specific information on this and other programs refer to the UT catalog or contact the department and/or college directly.