What is Geography?
Geography is the science of place and space. Geographers ask where things are located on the surface of the earth, why they are located where they are, how places differ from one another, and how people interact with the environment. There are two main branches of geography: human geography and physical geography.
Human geography is concerned with the spatial aspects of human life—how people and their activity are distributed in space, how people use and perceive space, and how people create and sustain the places that make up the earth’s surface. Human geographers work in the fields of urban and regional planning, transportation, marketing, real estate, tourism, and international business.
Physical geographers study patterns of climates, land forms, vegetation, soils, and water. They forecast the weather, manage land and water resources, and plan for forests, rangelands, and wetlands. Many geographers have skills in cartography (map-making) and geographic information systems (GIS —computer-based techniques for storing and interpreting geographical information).
Geographers also study the links between human activity and natural systems. Geographers were among the first scientists to warn that human-induced changes to the environment were threatening the balance of life itself. Today, geographers are active in the study of global warming, desertification, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, groundwater pollution, and flooding. One can hardly understand modern world events, international trade issues, the relationships between nations, and the differences in economic circumstances and environmental quality that occur from place to place without knowledge of modern geography.
Career Opportunities in Geography
Geography’s main areas—human, physical, and technical—have all experienced expansion in recent years. Improved understanding of our discipline has allowed geography departments to prepare their graduates for diverse employment opportunities. Environmental opportunities abound; locational analysis for commercial enterprises remains an important option; urban and regional planning continues to lure geographers; and mapping and spatial data analysis have expanded. Teaching positions at all levels have been abundant as well. Geographers have long supplied their expertise to these areas, while recently developing new tools.
In addition to time-honored fields, geographers are making inroads into new occupational areas. Travel and tourism now offer more opportunities to geographers, as do historic preservation, archival, and museum programs, international development and policy. Employers have a better grasp of what geographers can do for them than they did in the past, but few job advertisements use the title “geographer.” Consequently, job seekers must often be creative in their job, and they must be prepared to tell prospective employers how they can help them. This is an obstacle most accountants or computer programmers do not encounter, but is likely to remain for geography job seekers.
Salary Trends in Geography
A degree in arts and sciences prepares students for many types of careers. Your college major is not necessarily the deciding factor in your career choice. As with any degree, pre-professional experience (for example, volunteering, work experience, and internships) increases your chances of obtaining the job you want and affects your potential salary.
High School Preparation
It is difficult to set out an exact program of study for high school students because high schools have widely varying course offerings. But a high school student planning on majoring in geography should take all the geography courses he or she can. The student should also become as computer proficient as possible. Beyond that, a prospective geography major’s mix of high school courses will depend on both what is offered and the student’s own interests. For example, if a student is interested in the foreign studies aspect of geography, he or she might take political science, a modern foreign language, and appropriate foreign history courses. A student interested in physical geography should be sure to take biology and physics. A student interested in geographical information systems should acquire a strong background in mathematics. The above notwithstanding, many geography majors successfully build on a general but solid high school education.
How to Major in Geography
Ideally, a student declares a major in geography when entering UT. Although the major has two prerequisites, the 131–132 lab sequence and either 101 or 201, a student can take these courses after declaring. Once a student has declared a geography major, he or she will be assigned an advisor in the department who will help plan the student’s schedule. Majors are expected to maintain at least a 2.0 (or C) average, and only courses in which the student earns a 2.0 (or C) or better count toward the major. In practice, many students switch into geography from undeclared status or from another major often after taking a geography course to fulfill a distribution requirement. Such students have to work closely with their advisor to make sure that they complete all their geography requirements and still graduate on time.
A student who becomes a geography major after completing 60 course hours and who already has a two-course lab sequence may substitute certain upper division physical geography courses for 131-132. Students may also substitute an upper-level human geography course for either 101 or 201.
Many students minor in geography (15 credit hours at the 300 level) combining it with majors such as business, economics, political science, history, or a foreign language.
Requirements for Geography
Geography 131 and 132 and Geography 101 0r 201 are pre-requisites to the major.
The major consists of 27 hours including:
Geography 310: Introduction to Cartography
Geography 499: Proseminar in Geography
One methods course such as:
GEOG 410 – Global Positioning Systems and Geographic DataGEOG 411 – Introduction to Geographic Information ScienceGEOG 412 – Advanced Cartography TechniquesGEOG 413 – Remote Sensing: Types and ApplicationsGEOG 414 – Spatial Databases and Data ManagementGEOG 419 – Practicum in Cartography/Remote Sensing
One human geography course such as:
GEOG 320 – Cultural Geography: Core ConceptsGEOG 340 – Economic Geography: Core ConceptsGEOD 344 – Population Geography
GEOG 345 – Population and EnvironmentGEOG 421 – Geography of Folk SocietiesGEOG 423 – Geography of American Popular CultureGEOG 441 – Urban Geography of the United StatesGEOG 442 – Urban Social GeographyGEOG 443 – Rural Geography of the United StatesGEOG 449 – Geography of TransportationGEOG 451 – The Global Economy
One regional geography course such as:
GEOG 361 – Regional Geography of the United States and CanadaGEOG 363 – Geography of the American SouthGEOG 365 – Geography of AppalachiaGEOG 366 – Geography of TennesseeGEOG 371 – Geography of EuropeGEOG 373 – Geography of South AmericaGEOG 374 – Geography of East Asia
GEOG 375 – Geography of South Asia
One physical geography course such as:
GEOG 333 – Climate Change and Human Response
GEOG 334 – Meteorology
GEOG 430 – Global Environments of the QuaternaryGEOG 432 – DendrochronologyGEOG 433 – The Land-Surface SystemGEOG 434 – ClimatologyGEOG 435 – BiogeographyGEOG 436 – Water ResourcesGEOG 439 – Plant Geography of North AmericaGEOG 450 – Process GeomorphologyGEOG 454 – Terrain Analysis
Nine additional hours in Geography, six of which must be taken at the 400-level. No more than 3 hours of Geography 490 may be counted toward the major.
A minor consists of 15 hours of Geography courses at the 300-level or above. Geography 490, 491, 492, and 493 may not be counted toward the minor without departmental permission.
Special Programs, Co-ops, and Internships
The Geography honors option entails writing an honors thesis under the guidance of a faculty mentor and completing six credits in honors courses. Geography majors also have the opportunity to work on geography-related projects off campus as interns. Geography internships are often available with TVA, Oak Ridge National Labs, the City of Knoxville, and private firms. Majors sometimes find work opportunities in the department’s cartography shop or as assistants on faculty research projects. Such experiences provide geography majors with first-hand knowledge of the work professional geographers do and further their preparation for their careers.
Highlights of Geography
Geography majors play an active role in the life of the department. There is a Student Geography Club that is affiliated with the national organization of campus geography clubs. UT’s club undertakes public service projects such as river clean-ups. It also sponsors social gatherings and field trips to cities and other sites of special interest around the region. Majors are also active in Geography Awareness Week, helping promote the discipline by organizing public awareness events and speaking to schools and civic groups. Geography majors occasionally join faculty and graduate students in attending professional meetings. Outstanding geography majors may be inducted into Gamma Theta Upsilon, geography’s national honor society.
Geography is a highly internationalized discipline. The department’s World regional Geography (101-102) sequence serves as an introduction to today’s world for many UT students. The department offers a course on the global economy (451) as well as a suite of courses focusing on different world areas including South America (373), Europe (371), and East Asia (374). Even the department’s topical courses such as Urban Geography (441), Transportation Geography (449), Population and the Environment (345), and Biogeography (435) have strong international components. Most faculty members are engaged in foreign research. They have also led students on study-abroad trips and have been active in semester-abroad programs sponsored by the Center for International Education. Several recent geography majors have had foreign internships and some have assisted faculty members in foreign-based research.
Students are highly encouraged to begin planning early in their academic career and to consult with an academic advisor about the best time to study abroad as well as what courses to take abroad. For more information about program options, the application process, and how to finance study abroad, please visit the Programs Abroad Office website.
Also, learn more about UT’s Ready for the World initiative to help students gain the international and intercultural knowledge they need to succeed in today’s world.
Following this four-year plan will help you stay on track to graduate in four years. Milestone courses have been identified as the minimum courses that must be completed.
|Freshman Year||Credit Hours|
|Geography 101 or 201||3|
|Milestone courses: English 101|
|Sophomore Year||Credit Hours|
|Non-US History Sequence||6|
|Foreign Language or General Electives||6|
|Arts and Humanities||3|
|Milestone courses: English 102, Geography 101 or 201 and Geography 132|
|Junior Year||Credit Hours|
|Arts and Humanities||3|
|Upper Level Distribution||3|
|Upper Division Elective||6|
|Communicating Through Writing||3|
|Senior Year||Credit Hours|
|Upper Level Distribution||3|
|Upper Division Elective||3|
|GRAND TOTAL (minimum)||120|
For More InformationRonald V. Kalafsky, PhD University of Tennessee Department of Geography Knoxville TN 37996 USA Tel: +1-865-974-0407 firstname.lastname@example.org
The information on this page should be considered general information only. For more specific information on this and other programs refer to the UT catalog or contact the department and/or college directly.